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Engineering design

The importance of equipment and machine reliability is emphasized when the production process must be halted and then resumed, increasing production costs.

By enhancing the reliability of plants and equipment, the industry also improves its competitiveness and profitability in tough international markets.

With high quality laser coating we want to be involved in developing competitive and durable products. The design phase can improve the features of running parts of machinery and equipment. Laser coating can be used to improve the corrosion resistance, hardness or sliding friction of components. The laser coating is metallurgically bonded to the surface of the component, thereby achieving excellent adhesion (comparable to welding) unlike, for example, a thermal spray coating.

Lasercoating benefits

  • Strong metallurgical bond, welded joint - in effect, a single part
  • Low heat input => small deformation
  • Impermeable => good corrosion resistance (one layer is sufficient)
  • Low alloy => good corrosion and wear duration in one layer
  • Minor changes in the structure and properties of the base material, small HAZ (Heat-Affected Zone)
  • The coating features are "customizable"

Target properties

  • Wear resistance
  • Corrosion resistance
  • Liquid corrosion resistance (chlorides, acids, bases, etc.)
  • Heat Corrosion Resistance (Melt Resin, Oxidation)
  • Improved sliding friction
  • Repair / filling
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Environmentally friendly
  • Increased product lifecycle
  • Short turnaround (renewal, refurbishment)

Improve product properties and save costs by coating structural steel with acid-resistant coating.

Case Outotec, Turula engineering

Refurbishment of shaft with S355 + 316 acid resistant  laser surface coating

Find out more

A meltable additive is metallurgically attached to the molten surface of the base material by means of a laser beam applied to the surface.

Therefore, it is often relatively easy to choose the corrosion-resistant material that is to be applied with laser coating, because often the material suppliers' manuals and different material selection guides can be used directly.

When the coating cools rapidly, it has a very fine microstructure and the corrosion resistance of laser coating is even better than with rolled solid material.

Principles of laser coating

  1. The coating additive is fed from a separate feeder to the laser beam
  2. The additive absorbs energy from the laser beam
  3. The additive is heated and melts
  4. The molten material is also metallurgically bonded with a laser beam from the surface to the molten parent material
  5. Coating layer is created

TYPICAL ADDITIVES

  • Fe-based
    AISI431,316, tooling steel
  • Ni-based
    Inconel®, Hastelloy®, Monell®, NiCr, NiCoBSi
  • Co-based
    Stelliitit® 21,6,12,4
  • Cu-based
    CuAl, CuSn
  • Coatings containing coarse particles, the softer additive acts as 'glue' for carbides
    Co / Ni-based+ WC, Ni-based + CrC

Corrosion protection coating

Laser coating is the ideal method for corrosion protection as it provides an impermeable, non-porous coating. As the coating cools rapidly, its microstructure is very fine and the corrosion resistance of laser coatings is even better than the rolled solid material.

The material selected for laser coating used for corrosion protection is often relatively easy to choose because often material guides for material suppliers and manuals can be used directly.

Wear resistance

The most common types of wear are::

  • Abrasive wear, i.e. wear caused by particle friction along a surface
  • Erosion, when there is friction between a surface and a jet of particles
  • Adhesive, wear caused by friction between moving parts in contact with each other
  • Corrosion wear, fretting, cavitation, wear and tear, etc.

Corrosion and elevated temperatures are often associated with the above wear patterns. Different forms of wear also require different properties of the coating material. Against adhesive wear, most commonly used are stellites and Ni-Cr-B-Si alloys, whereas abrasive wear uses carbide-containing metal matrix composites in which tungsten, chromium, titanium, vanadium and similar are mixed with the metal matrix.

Download the laser coating guide

QUALITY CRITERIA OF LASER COATING MATERIALS

Laser surface treatment is a high quality surface treatment method, which is its most important characteristic. In most cases this means a dense and low alloy coating.

impermeability

Impermeability refers to a coating with no cracks or pores. Especially under corrosive conditions this is an important criterion for laser coatings. Mostly, pores are found in highly carbon-containing mixtures. Such mixtures are generally used in wear surfaces, depending on the application whether they are permissible.

In metal matrix components, pores are also often found to form molten carbides through the influence of carbon.

Alloys

The alloy is a percentage of the amount of the element melted and mixed in the surface treatment material. In for example the nickel coating for construction steel 10% iron (10% alloy), then the iron has come from the base material and thus affects the surface coating properties.

Laser coating applications

Power plants

Gas and steam turbine wings, boiler walls and heaters, valves, bases and sealing surfaces, cuttings.

Chemical Industry

Valve body and sealing surfaces, sealing collars, pump housings, impellers, flanges.

Paper mills

Pulper blades, crusher blades, rollers, hydraulic hammer arms, bearing housings.

Steel Industry

Wires, thread guides, extrusion tools.

Mining industry

Crusher teeth, parts for oil rigs, cones, earth moving parts for example pins, piston rods, wheel hubs, etc.

Engines

Valves, cylinder tubes, piston rods, piston rings, shafts

General

Tools and dies, shaft seal and bearing surfaces, crankshafts, hydraulic pistons and cylinders, electric motor shaft cranks, blades.